Interea ad Hispanias, ubi occisis duobus Scipionibus nullus Romanus dux erat, P. Cornelius Scipio mittitur, filius P. Scipionis, qui ibidem gesserat, annos natus quattor et viginti, vir Romanorum omnium et sua aetate et posteriore tempore fere primus. Is Carthaginem Hispaniae capit, in qua omne aurum, argentum et belli apparatum Afri habebant, nobilissimos quoque obsides, quos ab Hispanis acceperant. Magonem etiam, fratrem Hannibalis, ibidem capit, quem Romam cum aliis mittit. Romae ingens laetitia post hunc nuntium fuit. Scipio Hispanorum obsides parentibus reddidit; quare omnes fere Hispaniae uno animo ad eum transierunt. Post quae Hasdrubalem, Hannibalis fratrem, victum fugat et praedam maximam capit.
Meanwhile, P. Cornelius Scipio, aged 24, a man nearly first of all Romans of his age and the following age, son of P. Scipio who had been waging war in that very same place, was sent to Iberia where the two Scipios had been killed and no Roman leader was. He captured Carthage of Iberia, in which the Africans had gold, silver, and war supplies, and also the aristocratic hostages, who they had taken. Also Mago, brother of Hannibal, Scipio captured in that same place, and sent a messenger to Rome. There was great great joy in Rome after this message. Scipio then restored all of the Iberian hostages to their home; therefore almost all of Iberia unanimously passed over to him. After which Hasdrubal, Hannibal’s brother, is put to flight after being conquered and Scipio takes the greatest spoils.
Decimo anno postquam Hannibal in Italiam venerat, P. Sulpicio Cn. Fulvio consulibus, Hannibal usque ad quartum miliarium urbis accessit, equites eius usque ad portam. Mox consulum cum exercitu venientium metu Hannibal ad Campaniam se recepit. In Hispania a fratre eius Hasdrubale ambo Scipiones, qui per multos annos victores fuerant, interficiuntur, exercitus tamen integer mansit; casu enim magis erant quam virtute decepti. Quo tempore etiam a consule Marcello Siciliae magna pars capta est, quam tenere Afri coeperant, et nobilissima urbe Syracusana praeda ingens Romam perlata est. Laevinus in Macedonia cum Philippo et multis Graeciae populis et rege Asiae Attalo amicitiam fecit, et ad Siciliam profectus Hannonem quendam, Afrorum ducem, apud Agrigentum civitatem cum ipso oppido cepit; eumque Romam cum captivis nobilibus misit. XL civitates in deditionem accepit, XXVI expugnavit. Ita omni Sicilia recepta et Macedonia fracta, ingenti gloria Romam regressus est. Hannibal in Italia Cn. Fulvium consulem subito adgressus cum octo milibus hominum interfecit.
Ten years after Hannibal invaded Italy, with Publius Sulpicius and Gnaeus Fulvius as consuls, Hannibal approached the fourth milestone of the city [Rome] and his knights advanced all the way toward the city’s gate. Soon Hannibal, from fear of the consuls approaching with an army, retreated back into Campania. In Iberia both Scipios, who through many years were victorious, had been destroyed by his brother Hasdrubal, yet the whole army endured; great was that caught virtue [no fucking idea].Also at this time a great part of Sicily had been captured by the consul Marcellus, who began to hold off the Africans [Carthaginians], and carried out the huge plunder of the most noble city of Syracuse to Rome. In Macedonia, Laevinus made an alliance with Philip and many of the Greek people and the Asian king Atilla, and after he set out toward Sicily to a certain Hanno, African leader, and captured the area around Agrigentum along with the city itself; and he reported to Rome with noble prisoners. He accepted 40 surrendering cities, 26 he captured. Thus with all of Sicily taken and Macedonia defeated, great glory returned to Laevinus and Rome. Hannibal, when he suddenly attacked the counsul Gnaeus Fulvius in Italy, killed him [Gnaeus] along with 8,000 men.
I think that with casu enim magis erant quam virtute decepti Eutropius is trying to say what a wonderful thing it is that, even with the two Scipios being defeated, the army was able to endure, but I’m not sure. My book says that casu means “by chance” whereas I thought it was just a noun, abl. sing., “fallen.” Whatever~ I also got lazy with the last sentence and just looked at the notes in my book, oops
Had lots of homework for my summer classes, but they’re over now FINALLY so I can continue with my translations that no one cares about.
Ita uno tempore quattor locis pugnabatur: in Italia contra Hannibalem, in Hispaniis contra fratrem eius Hasdrubalem, in Macedonia contra Philippum, in Sardinia contra Sardos et alterum Hasdrubalem Carthaginiensem. Is a T. Manlio proconsule, qui ad Sardiniam missus fuerat, vivus est captus, occisa cum eo duodecim milia, capti mille quingenti, et a Romanis Sardinia subacta. Manlius victor captivos et Hasdrubalem Romam reportavit. Interea etiam Philippus a Laevino in Macedonia vincitur et in Hispania ab Scipionibus Hasdrubal et Mago, tertius frater Hannibalis.
Thus, four battles were being waged at once: in Italy against Hannibal, in Iberia against his brother Hasdrubal, in Macedonia against Philip, and in Sardinia against the Sardinians and the other Carthaginian Hasdrubal [NOT Hannibal’s brother; this is a different dude from Carthage named Hasdrubal]. He [Hasdrubal 2.0] was captured alive by proconsul T. Manlio; 12,000 with him were killed and 500,000 were captured, and thus Sardinia was conquered by the Romans. Victorious Manlius reported the prisoners and Hasdrubal to Rome.Meanwhile, Philip was also conquered by Laevinus in Macedonia and Hasdrubal and Mago (third bro of Hannibal) were conquered in Iberia by Scipio.
That was actually pretty straight-forward I think and I didn’t have many problems. I would like to think I’m getting better but this is actually just really easy LOL. Although I’m not totally sure why Eutropius called Mago Barca Hannibal’s third brother, because Hannibal only had two…unless he’s counting his brother-in-law…but still…
I realize it would be better for me to write this essay using my own translation of Ovid or whatever, BUT I DON’T HAVE TIMMMEEE
This Philip is Philip V of Macedon who is NOT the father of Alexander the Great. Just to make sure we’re all clear.
Anno quarto postquam ad Italiam Hannibal venit, M. Claudius Marcellus consul apud, Nolam, civitatem Campaniae, contra Hannibalem benne pugnavit. Hannibal multas civitates Romanorum per Apuliam, Calabriam, Brittios occupavit. Quo tempore etiam rex Macedoniae Philippus ad eum legatos misit, promittens auxilia contra Romanos sub hac condicione, ut deletis Romanis ipse quoque contra Graecos ab Hannibale auxilia acciperet. Captis igitur legatis Philippi et re cognita Romani in Macedoniam M. Valerium Laevinum ire iusserunt, in Sardiniam T. Manlium Torquatum proconsulem. Nam etiam ea, sollicitata ab Hannibale, Romanos deseruerat.
Four years after Hannibal invaded Italy, consul M. Claudius Marcellus fought well against Hannibal around Nola, a city of Campania. Hannibal occupied many of the Roman cities through Apulia, Calabria, and Brittii, and at that time King Philip of Macedon sent legates to him, promising to send help against the Romans under one condition: that he himself, with the Romans having been destroyed, would send help from Hannibal against the Greeks. Therefore, M. Valerium Laevinus and the Romans ordered the capture of Philip’s legates in Macedonia and went into Sardinia to proconsul T. Manlium Torquatum. For also Sardinia, having been agitated by Hannibal, were abandoning the Romans.
Dayum, this translation was particularly bad. The part I italicized REALLY confused me: the verb iusserunt is in the plural so Valerius himself can’t be doing the order, it has to be him and some other dude. I originally had it as “Therefore, M. Valerium Laevinum in Macedonia and proconsul T. Manlium Torquatum in Sardinia ordered the capture of Philip’s legates and went to Rome with the recognized affair,” which does not make a lot of sense because of a lot of reasons LOL but then I finally took romani in the plural nominative, so he and the Romans. Also, what the actual fuck am I supposed to do with ire? It’s the present active infinitive of eo, “to go,” and WHY would he use a present verb? It probably has to do with sequence of tenses, but I’m too lazy to look that up now.
Anyway, I translated a lot of parts awkwardly so just to clear things up: Phil wants Hannibal, in exchange for his help against the Romans, to send help for him against the Greeks. And then shit gets real.
So, if you haven’t noticed already, Eutropius likes listing all the losses at the end of his brief summaries of the battles. Caesar does the same. It’s interesting because you can see how very bureaucratic they are, although it’s weird because Eutropius always details about Hannibal’s losses. Or maybe it isn’t weird, I dunno. /OBVIOUS OBSERVATION
Post eam pugnam multae Italiae civitates, quae Romanis paruerant, se ad Hannibalem transtulerunt. Hannibal Romanis obtulit ut captivos redimerent, responsumque est a senatu eos cives non esse necessarios, qui, cum armati essent, capti potuissent. Ille omnes postea variis suppliciis interfecit et tres modios anulorum aureorum Carthaginem misit, quos ex manibus equitum Romanorum, senatorum et militum detraxerat. Interea in Hispania, ubi frater Hannibalis Hasdrubal remanserat cum magno exercitu, ut eam totam Afris subigeret, a duobus Scipionibus, Romanis ducibus, vincitur. Perdit in pugna XXXV milia hominum; ex his capiuntur X milia, occiduntur XXV milia. Mittuntur ei a Carthaginiensibus ad reparandas vires XII milia peditum, IV milia equitum, XX elephanti.
MINE MINE MINE MINE
After that battle [Cannae], many Italian cities, who were subjected to the Romans, were transferred to Hannibal himself. Hannibal offered to the Romans that they may buy back the prisoners of war, and it was answered by the senate that the indispensable citizens, who, since they would have been armed, would not have been captured. Afterwards he killed every man with varied torture and sent three pecks of gold rings to Carthage, that was stripped from the hands of the cavalry of the Roman senate and soldiers. Meanwhile in Iberia (lol), the brother of Hannibal, Hasdrubal, remained with a great army, so that he may subjugate all of her [Iberia] to Africa [Carthage]. The two Scipios, leaders of the Romans, had been conquered. He [WHO? DAMMIT, EUTROPIUS] lost 35 thousand men in battle: out of this number 10 thousand had been captured, 25 thousand had been killed. He sent to Carthage to recover [about to be recovered? future passive participle] men; 22 thousand soldiers, 4 thousand knights, 20 elephants.
WOO, ablative of means for “varied torture” (probably a shitty translation, but I wanted to use the word torture). Had a difficult time with the part I italicized, but mostly because I’m dumb. Problems were also had with the ending where he talks about the two Scipios (one being the Roman general Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio and, of course, Publius Scipio himself). I also got lazy with the future passive participle.
RECAP: Rome declares war on Carthage after Hannibal’s attack on Saguntum. Hannibal then makes his way over to Italy via the Pyrenees Mountains with army in tow (including his famous elephants) and meets Scipio (not yet Africanus). After kicking his ass he then fights and destroys Gracchus at the Battle of the Trebia. The consul Flaminius is the next victim, and after dispatching his army he finally meets with Fabius Maximus. Fabius is smarter than Scipio and Gracchus (hence him being Maximus) and refuses to engage Hannibal in a pitched battle; instead, he gradually weakens his forces ensuring victory against a weary army when he finally does attack. Now the Battle of Cannae, YEAHHH. Watch Eutropius make this boring.
Quingentesimo et quadragesimo anno a condita urbe L. Aemilius Paullus P. Terentius Varro contra Hannibalem mittuntur Fabioque succedunt, qui abiens ambo consules monuit, ut Hannibalem, callidum et inpatientem ducem, non aliter vincerent, quam proelium differendo. Verum cum impatientia Varronis consulis, contradicente altero consule, apud vicum qui Cannae appellatur in Apulia pugnatum esset, ambo consules ab Hannibale vincuntur. In ea pugna tria milia Afrorum pereunt; magna pars de exercitu Hannibalis sauciatur. Nullo tamen Punico bello Romani gravius accepti sunt. Periit enim in eo consul Aemilius Paulus, consulares aut praetorii XX, senatores capti aut occisi XXX, nobiles viri CCC, militum XL milia, equitum III milia et quingenti. In quibus malis nemo tamen Romanorum pacis mentionem habere dignatus est. Servi, quod numquam ante, manumissi et milites facti sunt.
Aemilius Paulus and Terentius Varro, being consuls in the 540th year of Rome’s foundation, sent and followed Fabius Maximus against Hannibal, who departing warned both consuls, that Hannibal, a skilled and impetuous leader, would be conquered in no other way than a postponed battle. But with the impatient consul Varro speaking against the other consul, he fought near the village that was called Cannae in Apulia [S. Italy], and both consuls were defeated by Hannibal. In this battle 3,000 Africans [Carthaginians] were killed; a great part of Hannibal’s army was wounded. None, however, were dealt with more severely than the Romans. The consul Aemilius Paulus died; also 20 ex-consuls and praetors, 30 senators were captured or killed, 300 noble men, 40,000 soldiers, and 3,500 equites. And during these misfortunes, none of the Romans deigned to speak of peace. Slaves and soldiers were made free, which never before had happened.
Maybe I’ll talk about grammar stuff later. Latin makes me tired.
Lol I’m re-reading this again about 2 weeks later and…yeah. When I’m finished with the Second Punic War I might go back over my translations. The only problem is is that I’m trying to be literal, but literal Latin-ness does not go over so well in English.